Friday, May 22, 2020

Analysis Of The Poem Yolo - 1041 Words

Greetings Cocalico students, staff, faculty, family, and friends. Like many of you I have been anticipating this day since the beginning of senior year, and WOW what a fun year it has been. We’ve won a league football title, shared a few laughs, tore apart the spirit monkey, shared a few laughs, we had our tennis and lacrosse teams go into districts, shared a few laughs, and most importantly, make some lifelong memories along the way (and did I mention share a few laughs). Today I am going to transform the ever popular saying â€Å"YOLO† (You only live once) into a more realistic, and more fitting phrase, YODO. YODO is not the famous Star Wars character Yoda’s brother, but rather the title of my speech and more importantly the phrase I live by†¦show more content†¦Throughout my high school years I have and continually questioned that popular belief, contributing to over 7 different sports teams, groups, and organizations throughout my high school years a nd it could not have been more rewarding. Questioning things allows us to find the reality, and most times, the reward, of truth in our lives. Continually searching for this truth will allow you to love and give meaning to life. My second piece of advice as you wander out into the â€Å"real world† is to be fearless. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was spot on with these famous words from his Inaugural Address, â€Å"The only thing we have to fear is fear itself†. As redundant as his quote is, it could not be more perfect in describing the key to enjoying life. Being fearless means that your fears should not be in the way of experiencing opportunities that create lifelong memories. The concept of a fear is absolutely pointless for two reasons. The first reason is that you should never be afraid to try something new. When I was younger, I was absolutely terrified of roller coasters. And I mean terrified. For those of you who are familiar with Hershey Park, the Trailblazer was a stretch for me to go on. As I grew older (and sadly not much taller), I came to realize that there was no reason for my fear. It was simply something new. When I finally rode my first big roller coaster

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Virtual Child Progress Report Part I - 1641 Words

Abstract This paper is a progress report of an eight-year old girl’s developmental milestones from ages zero months to eight years old. It is an attempt to relate the milestones, and the impact on the girl’s ability to interact with her social environment. It identifies changes, and struggles the child experienced over the years. It reviews the decisions the parents made and their impact to her development. It links development theories to changes and experiences she experienced. Keywords: child development, developmental milestones, temperament, parenting style, child development theories, trajectory, social and moral development. Virtual Child Progress Report Part I Shakira is an eight year old, Asian girl from a middle-class family. She is currently living with her mother and younger sister since her parents recently separated. In general, her parents get along, and often make decisions together for the siblings. At home, Shakira is uncooperative, and often in bad mood (angry or sad). She often forgets homework and chores, or leaves them unfinished. She overly reacts to stress, and unable to control her emotions. She yells angrily at family members, and slams the door to her room. Her negative behavior usually elicits anger from her parents leading to more screaming and chaos. She constantly cheats when playing games, and lies about trivial things. She cannot concentrate or pay attention in school. She is not interested in language arts orShow MoreRelatedWhat Is The Supreme Court Website1021 Words   |  5 Pagesa 360 virtual tour of the Supreme Court building, including the chambers of several justices (Oyez, 2017). Oyez provides information on the United States Supreme Court cases dating back to 1789 up until the most recent cases and its decision rather or not it was granted or not granted and the opinions and arguments of the justices and courts. Oyez also provides a list of the justices, the 360 vitural tour of the Supreme Court, and recent news articles on (â€Å"ISCOTUSnow†). Most informative part of theRead MorePsychological Analysis On Ava s Communication Skills934 Words   |  4 Pages At the end of 8 years of age heading into 9 years of age, I received a psychological analysis on Ava. Based on these results, I think I did well in the areas that involved Ava’s communication skills, language skills, as well as her memory skills. I believe this to be true because Ava’s scores have proven to be average or above average in these particular areas. Ava’s psychological analysis was performed by a highly trained psychologist. Ava took the verbal portion of the Wechsler Intelligence ScaleRead MoreThe Development of Attachment Essay1435 Words   |  6 Pagesinfant wants. Now the infant begins to give something back in return  · Lessoning of the physical closeness to the adult. 5 years +. From the age of five the development of attachment is based on affection trust and approval between child and caregiver. 2. Outline two explanations of attachment Humans create many kinds of bonds. A bond is a connection between one person and another. In the field of infant development, attachment refers to a special bond characterizedRead MoreThe Effects Of Social Media On Our Lives918 Words   |  4 Pagesremember when we had to wait for the six o clock news to come on, to find out what was going on around the world? I didn t like waiting. But no more! Now it s all at your fingertips. You don t even have to get out of bed if you don’t want to. Just turn on your phone, your computer, or laptop, tablet, and you have access to the latest technology. You can find out the weather, news reports in anything in the world you want. Whether, you want to work from home, talk to your family and friends. TheRead MoreGrowing Up During the Holocaust: A Look at the Other Side of World War II1461 Words   |  6 Pagesfittest, and the reality of death around her. With the Hubermann family, and her best friend Rudy, Markus takes us on a journey that shows that life as a child in Nazi Germany is difficult when you have a thirst for knowledge. In 1933 Munich, Germany had 9,005 Jews (1.2% of the Jew population) living within the city, they played an important part in the social, economic, and cultural life of Munich. However, in the period of March 1, 1933 to May 16, 1938 803 Jew deaths were recorded in Munich, asRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Themistocles Essay1335 Words   |  6 Pagesholds the head of Leonidas boastfully over the city as his men lay waste to the people and burn everything down. He continues to brag about his victory and states that Themistocles was nothing but a coward. 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They have shaped and molded the way people live and interact. People once questioned the harms and benefits a computer would give a child. Their belief was that children who relied on these machines would lose their individuality, get out of touch with their own cultural roots, and confuse actual reality with virtual reality. Researchers were afraid that computers would instigate a loss of socialization among young children. Numerous experiments, such as ones performed byRead MoreThe Art Of Technology And Schools Essay2115 Words   |  9 Pageshas to check social media, emails, play games or watch videos. While it is distracting students do not realize they academic affect it will have later on down the road. As a student being in big lecture halls I have always thought does anyone use their laptops to actually take notes? All I see around big lecture halls are students streaming live sports games, on all types of social media, listening to music, watching YouTube, or playing games. So technology really is a distraction in the classroomRead MoreThe Importance Of Long Standing National Traditions On School Performance And Educational Attainment5716 Words   |  23 Pageswork with the community. At the same time, the survey clearly demonstrates the importance of the relationship between home, school, and community both in student’s lives and in their success at school. When such connections are lacking, teachers report that they face increased demands and that students are more likely to perform poorly. Difficulties that students bring to school ranging from health concerns, to a lack of motivation, to family circumstances and community problems create additional

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Public Private Education System Education Essay Free Essays

string(282) " of the larger literature on â€Å" shadow instruction † in the subdivisions below, we elaborate the conceptualisation of the intercrossed system of instruction found in Cambodia, concentrating on its divergent and convergent points with the â€Å" shadow † metaphor\." The boundaries between the public and private proviso of schooling in Cambodia have become progressively blurred. While the figure of private schools remains fringy and by and large limited to elite schools in urban countries, denationalization is come ining public schools-invisibly and frequently unofficially-on an unprecedented graduated table. Given policy force per unit areas from international fiscal establishments, the boundaries between the populace and the private are sometimes purposefully erased by authorities functionaries in the name of cosmopolitan primary instruction and Education for All ( EFA ) in order to impart private financess into a badly underfunded public instruction system. We will write a custom essay sample on The Public Private Education System Education Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now In this context, the private proviso of instruction non merely becomes attractive to policymakers as a feasible mechanism in shuting the support spread but besides reflects authorities ‘s committedness to deregulating, decentalisation, and marketisation of the economic system since the 1990s. In add-on to government-led attempts, concealed denationalization of instruction besides thrives at the grass-root degrees in the signifier of private tutoring, which allows instructors to supplement their meagre wages with extra income and offers pupils instruction of higher quality compared to public schools. Notwithstanding the positive facets of private tutoring-such as spread outing cognition and involvements for persons ( Bray, 2007 ) , roll uping human capital for societies ( Psacharopoulos A ; Patrinos, 2002 ) , and supplying new schemes for get bying with rapid geopolitical passages for a assortment of instruction stakeholders ( Silova, 2009 ; Silova A ; Brehm, 2013 ) -the private tutoring in Cambodia has grown in size to such an extent that it is now arguably greater in demand, value, and income coevals than the public instruction system. In kernel, private tutoring has become more of import to both instructors and pupils in Cambodia than the public instruction system because of its ability to bring forth higher incomes for instructors and supply a more complete ( and individualized ) instruction to pupils. The private proviso of instruction through private tutoring has assumed similar signifiers to public instruction, going both a differentiated demand ( focused chiefly on topi cs examined on national trials or thought to supply better occupation chances ) and extra demand ( run intoing the unequal supply of public instruction ) . It has, in consequence, usurped the legitimacy of public instruction in Cambodia. Although the Kampuchean authorities made efforts to get rid of enrollment fees in the 1990s, prohibit informal fees like buying scrutiny documents from instructors in 2005, and label private tutoring unethical in 2008 ( see Asian Development Bank, 2008 ; Royal Government of Cambodia, 2008 ) , it has non enforced such policies. Left unregulated, the market for private tutoring has begun to falsify the mainstream course of study by switching important parts of curricular content from the populace to the private proviso of instruction. For illustration, some surveies report public school instructors â€Å" blackjacking † their ain pupils into go toing excess lessons ( Bray, 2007 ; Dawson, 2009 ) . Other surveies have shown a important sum of new curricular stuff or prep being presented in private tutoring categories ( Brehm A ; Silova, 2012 ) . Since many instructors live in poorness because of limited or stretched income ( Benveniste et al. , 2008: 62 ) , keep backing informati on during mainstream instruction becomes one manner to guarantee a market for private tutoring. Yet, the costs associated with private tutoring prohibit many pupils from go toing these auxiliary lessons, therefore lending to socioeconomic unfairnesss ( Bray, 1999a, 2007 ; Dawson, 2009 ) . Constructing on old research about the range and nature of private tutoring in Cambodia ( Bray, 2007 ; Dawson, 2009 ) , this survey aims to straight address quality and equity deductions of private tutoring in the broader context of denationalization of public instruction. The chief research inquiry examines why, how, and under what fortunes denationalization of public instruction takes the signifier of private tutoring and what deductions this concealed denationalization has for the quality and equity of instruction proviso for Kampuchean young person. Following an overview of old research on private tutoring in the Southeast Asian and international context, we situate the survey of private tutoring in the political, economic, and historical context of Cambodia. Pulling on qualitative and quantitative informations collected in 2011 in one territory in Cambodia ( including three schools in an urban location and three schools in a rural location ) , this survey identifies factors driv ing the demand for private tutoring, compares teaching methods used in public school categories and private tutoring lessons, and examines deductions of private tutoring for long-run societal and economic equity among Kampuchean young person. Gestating Private Tutoring: The Public-Private Hybrid Education System Systems of private tutoring are turning worldwide. In Europe, most European Union states experience some degree of private tutoring ( Bray, 2011 ) ; in the United States, private tutoring is estimated to be a US $ 5 billion industry ;[ 1 ]and in Hong Kong, private tutoring has become so popular that images of celebrated coachs are on a regular basis found in newspaper and coach advertizements ( Kwo A ; Bray, 2011 ) . There is even a Chinese private tutoring company listed on the New York Stock Exchange.[ 2 ]However, private tutoring is non limited to Western and economically developed states. It has besides been found in states every bit diverse as Egypt ( Fergany, 1994 ) , India ( Aggarwal, 1998 ) , and Kenya ( Nzomo et al. , 2001 ) . Asia is possibly the continent where private tutoring is most widespread ( Bray A ; Lykins, 2012 ) , with the more economically advanced states, like South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, being used as the empirical footing for what some have called â⠂¬Å" hyper-education † ( Dierkes, 2010 ) .[ 3 ] Despite the range of private tutoring worldwide and its peculiar prevalence in Asia, it however takes different signifiers depending on context. Bray ( 2009 ) conceptualizes private tutoring as an institutionalised fee-based auxiliary instruction that occurs because of a scope of issues including high bets proving, remedial categories, structural issues like overloaded course of study, and/or intensive societal competition. The common metaphor for private tutoring is â€Å" shadow instruction. † Yet, in our position, in Cambodia the shadow instruction metaphor misses the hybridisation between public and private schooling. Following the treatment of the larger literature on â€Å" shadow instruction † in the subdivisions below, we elaborate the conceptualisation of the intercrossed system of instruction found in Cambodia, concentrating on its divergent and convergent points with the â€Å" shadow † metaphor. You read "The Public Private Education System Education Essay" in category "Essay examples" The â€Å" shadow † metaphor Private tutoring is normally referred to as â€Å" shadow instruction † because it mimics ( or â€Å" shadows † ) mainstream schooling ( Stevenson A ; Baker, 1992 ; Bray, 1999b ; Lee et al. , 2009 ) . The survey of private tutoring within this conceptualization is concerned with topics taught on the national course of study, non extracurricular activities, like guitar lessons or dance. The analogy to a sundial casting a shadow to state the transition of clip is frequently used to depict shadows cast by systems of instruction that tell about the alterations in society ( Bray, 2007, 2011 ; Bray A ; Lykins, 2012 ) . In peculiar, Bray ( 2009 ) explains that the metaphor of the â€Å" shadow † is utile for several grounds: First, private supplementary tutoring merely exists because the mainstream instruction system exists ; 2nd, as the size and form of the mainstream system alteration, so make the size and form of auxiliary tutoring ; 3rd, in about all societies much more attending focuses on the mainstream than on its shadow ; and 4th, the characteristics of the shadow system are much less distinguishable than those of the mainstream system. ( p. 13 ) The shadow instruction metaphor clearly separates mainstream schooling from private tutoring, and focal points on how the two influence, and are influenced by, one another. Evidence of private tutoring around the universe suggests that there are multiple factors driving the demand for shadow instruction. First, the prevalence of high-stake scrutinies has created a demand for private tutoring among pupils to better prepare for and successfully pass assorted scrutinies necessary to progress to higher degrees of schooling. Second, private tutoring occurs when pupils need excess aid in get the hanging a certain accomplishment or subject that has proven excessively hard to understand during mainstream schooling. Third, there are assorted structural issues that cause private tutoring, such as short school yearss and low instructor wages. Impacting all three of these factors is the increased social force per unit area put on parents and pupils to win in school. Acting as a non-academic fact or taking to private tutoring, equal force per unit area besides exacerbates the demand for excess categories, as parents and pupils perceive private tutoring as an effectual manner to gain an advantage in school, sometimes despite any existent additions in academic accomplishment. High-stakes scrutinies Within the â€Å" shadow † metaphor, private tutoring is often associated with an â€Å" enrichment scheme, † foregrounding its function in fixing pupils for high-stakes scrutinies ( Baker A ; LeTendre, 2005: 61 ) . In peculiar, high-stakes scrutinies increase pupil and parental anxiousnesss about keeping, registration, or graduation. The premise is that high-stakes scrutinies serve as â€Å" a gate-keeper to instruction and labour market chances † ( Baker A ; LeTendre, 2005: 62 ) and that pupil success on high-stakes scrutinies would take to better instruction and employment chances in the hereafter. This is why â€Å" cram schools † have emerged in many states to fix pupils of assorted academic abilities ( from remedial to high winners ) for high-stakes scrutinies. For illustration, Tansel and Bircan ( 2006 ) study that extremely competitory higher instruction entryway scrutinies in Turkey create the demand for private tutoring. Similarly, the secondar y school choice procedure in Japan reportedly produces a strong logic for pupils to go to juku, an establishment offering a assortment of private tutoring lessons across all educational degrees ( Sawada A ; Kobayashi, 1986 ; Russell, 2002 ; Roesgaard, 2006 ; Dierkes, 2008 ; Dawson, 2010 ) . Some surveies, nevertheless, have questioned the nexus between high-stakes scrutinies and private tutoring. For illustration, Aurini and Davis ( 2004 ) observed that tutoring concerns are turning well in Canada despite the fact that Canadian universities lack university entryway scrutinies and are non arrayed on a steep prestigiousness hierarchy, as are universities in other states such as the United States and Japan. Although Cambodia has what look to be â€Å" high-stakes † scrutinies in class 9 and grade 12,[ 4 ]the commoditisation of instruction that has resulted from the neoliberal structural accommodation policies in the 1990s has practically eliminated the high-stakes nature of these scrutinies. This has occurred because multiple goods and services are sold during the full scrutiny procedure, go forthing the demand to really analyze or â€Å" cram † for the scrutiny to lone pupils who can non afford the assorted fees or pupils who are ethically opposed to educational corruptness. First, scrutiny replies or mention ushers ( â€Å" cheat-sheets † ) can be purchased from local photocopy shops yearss or hours before the scrutiny. The assorted reply or darnel sheets cost different monetary values depending on their â€Å" known † quality ( i.e. , whether the beginning of the reply or mention sheet is known to come from a instructor, a certain location, an decision mak er, or others ) . Why would pupils â€Å" cram † for scrutinies when they can easy buy replies before the trial? Second, during the scrutiny, many services can be purchased from the two monitors ( instructors administrating the scrutiny ) in each schoolroom or accountants ( the instructor supervising a group of monitors ) standing outside. Students can pay monitors to allow them utilize either mini-textbooks purchased at a photocopy Centre, answer sheets, or work in groups. Additionally, for a higher monetary value, some monitors or accountants are willing to assist pupils by either filling in a clean scrutiny sheet and go throughing it along to pupils, or supplying one-on-one aid during the scrutiny. Sometimes during the procedure, pupils pay monitors, monitors pay accountants, and accountants pay supervisors ( instructors in charge of a group of accountants ) -all to maintain eyes looking elsewhere.[ 5 ]In some instances, parents pay a fee to guarantee a certain monitor or accountant is assigned to their kid ‘s category in order for that pupil to have aid on the more hard topics ( typically mathematics or chemical science ) from a instructor who teaches those topics. The jobs of rip offing on national scrutinies have repeatedly made headlines in the Kampuchean intelligence, but the assorted patterns are widely known to go on despite official warnings ( see Cheng, 2011 ; Chhron, 2010 ; Saoyuth, 2010 ) . As the gloss of any instruction meritocratic order is all but eliminated by the many fees during the scrutiny procedure, these trials are â€Å" high-stakes † in name merely ; few if any pupils feel force per unit area from the scrutiny beyond non holding adequate money to guarantee a high grade. In fact, pupils unable to pay the high costs typically drop out far before the national scrutinies.[ 6 ] Remedial tutoring Private tutoring is frequently thought of as assisting some pupils maintain up with the content taught in authorities school. For illustration, de Silva ( 1994 ) identified several factors that create the demand for remedial tutoring: â€Å" pupil and instructor absence, frequent closing of school, uneffective instruction and carelessness on the portion of the instructor, † every bit good as â€Å" immature, inexperienced or unqualified instructors managing these topics may non be able to take the pupils to a proper apprehension of the subdivisions taught † ( p. 5 ) . In these fortunes, remedial private tutoring serves to â€Å" get the better of these spreads or lacks in pupils ‘ acquisition and construct their assurance enabling them to vie with others and see a happy and pleasant life † ( p. 5 ) . In add-on to demand for remedial private tutoring by pupils and parents, some authoritiess have besides mandated or encouraged the usage of it. The educational system of Bosnia and Herzegovina, for illustration, provides compulsory auxiliary categories for remedial pupils. Traditionally, if more than 50 per centum of the pupils in a category are holding jobs get the hanging the capable affair, the instructor is obliged to form alleged â€Å" remedial categories † in that topic. Remedial categories are held after regular school hours and are an chance for the instructor to make extra work with fighting pupils ( Husremovic A ; Trbic, 2006 ) . Vouchers are another manner authoritiess can promote the usage of remedial private tutoring. In Australia, the authorities uses verifiers to fund pupils who fall behind to take remedial private tutoring categories ( Bishop, 2007 ) . Remedial private tutoring is besides available in Cambodia, but it is merely one of the many types of private tutoring ( see Table 1 ) . Students who need excess aid with assorted school topics can buy extra educational services to make full spreads in their cognition. However, this is non the chief ground for go toing private tutoring lessons. By and large, Kampuchean pupils attend private tutoring lessons conducted by their instructors as a continuance of their regular school twenty-four hours, non needfully for redress intents ( Brehm A ; Silova, 2012 ) . If pupils need remedial tutoring, they would hold to take these lessons in add-on to â€Å" regular † private tutoring ( Rien Kuo[ 7 ]) . Remedial private tutoring is frequently referred to as â€Å" excess particular private tutoring † ( Rien Kuo Pises ) and is offered by instructors to pupils in one-on-one or little group lessons. Typically, these remedial categories cost more than Rien Kuo ( regular private tuto ring ) , sometimes every bit high as US $ 100 monthly for one hr of analyzing one topic. However, the separation of these two types of private tutoring is non ever along remedial lines. Some pupils attend Rien Kuo when they need excess aid on a certain lesson, and some pupils attend Rien Kuo Pises because it offers a better acquisition environment than Rien Kuo. Structural issues The demand for private tutoring besides stems from structural issues, such as an overladen course of study, deficiency of fiscal resources, or educational corruptness. First, overloaded course of study is frequently attributed to the turning demand for private tutoring, proposing that public school instructors may prosecute in private tutoring after school to learn the stuff they were unable to cover during school hours. For illustration, course of study reforms implemented in many of the post-Soviet democracies in the 1990s â€Å" stretched the bing course of study † by presenting new academic topics ( e.g. , information and communicating engineerings, civics, and foreign linguistic communications ) without well altering the familial Soviet course of study. In Lithuania, Budiene and Zabulounis ( 2006: 213 ) study that the freshly introduced student-centred instruction methods consumed more clip than the old teacher-centred attacks. Private tutoring was therefore used to run i nto the demand for more clip necessary to finish the needed national course of study, utilizing new teaching/learning methodological analysiss. The association between an overladen course of study and private tutoring is besides reported in surveies of private tutoring in Cyprus, Indonesia, Lebanon, Nigeria, and Russia, ( Bray, 2007: 37 ) , every bit good as Southeast/Central Europe and Central Asia ( Silova, 2009 ; Silova et al. , 2006 ) . In Cambodia, pupils and parents perceive private tutoring as a mechanism enabling instructors to decently learn the topics included in the national course of study ( Brehm A ; Silova, 2012 ) . In peculiar, many parents believe that there is merely non adequate clip in the school twenty-four hours to cover all course of study, doing specific mentions to the decrease of the school twenty-four hours following the debut of double- and triple-shift schooling. Despite the few reported instances of instructors purposefully â€Å" decelerating down â⠂¬  content bringing to make a market for private tutoring ( Bray, 1999a: 55 ) , the sensed deficiency of clip nonetheless leads to a perceived demand for more instructional clip merely to supply needed coverage of the national course of study. Second, low educational outgos contribute to the demand for private tutoring. In states financially unable to adequately back up public instruction, private tutoring emerges as a mechanism to supplement low instructor wages, provide smaller category sizes, and offer larning stuffs to pupils outside the national course of study ( Silova, et al. , 2006 ; Silova, 2009 ; Bray, 2010 ; for the Kampuchean instance see Bray A ; Bunly, 2005 ; Silova A ; Brehm, 2013 ) . For illustration, Cambodia spends 2.3 per centum of GDP on instruction, puting it among the lowest in the Southeast Asia part and below the universe ‘s norm of 4.8 per centum ( European Commission, 2012 ) . Although the budget allotment to the MoEYS recurrent outgos experienced an addition starting in the 2000s, there has been a steady lessening since 2007 ( see Figure 1 ) . Harmonizing to the European Commission ( 2012 ) , there was a downward tendency in budgeted recurrent outgos between 2007 ( 19.2 per centum ) and 2 012 ( 15.9 per centum ) .[ 8 ]Meanwhile, surveies have found that families contribute a larger portion on the instruction per kid than does the authorities: whereas the authorities spends on mean US $ 50 per kid per twelvemonth ( Ratcliff, 2009: 11 ) , households spend between US $ 48 ( rural countries ) to US $ 157 ( urban countries ) per kid per twelvemonth ( NEP, 2007: 18 ) . Of family instruction outgos, about 38 per centum goes to education fees, which includes the cost of private tutoring ( NEP, 2007 ) . Figure 1. MoEYS Budgeted and Actual Recurrent Outgos Beginning: Education Sector Working Group, 2006 ; European Commission, 2012 Third, the deficiency of educational resources disproportionately impact teacher rewards. In Cambodia, there has been a wide consensus among pedagogues, brotherhood leaders, decision makers, and society in general that instructor wages are deficient to cover life disbursals ( Benveniste et al. , 2008 ) . In 2007, for illustration, a primary instructor ‘s base wage was US $ 44 per month, which made it hard ( if non impossible ) for many instructors to afford the basic necessities of nutrient, lodging, and heath attention, every bit good as support any kids or aged household members ( Benveniste et al. , 2008: 59 ) .[ 5 ]To some extent, private tutoring has helped underpaid instructors generate extra income. For illustration, a common 2nd business among Kampuchean instructors, particularly in urban primary schools, is private tutoring ( 41.5 per centum of urban instructors identified tutoring as out-of-school work ; [ Benveniste et al. , 2008: 69 ] ) . Net incomes from private tu toring can stand for about two tierces of the monthly mean base wage with basic allowances ( Benveniste et al. , 2008: 38 ) . Similar to instructors in other geographic countries ( such as the Southeast/Central Europe and the former Soviet Union ) , many Kampuchean instructors have adopted the logic of â€Å" service proviso, † utilizing private tutoring as a cardinal income-generation activity ( Silova A ; Bray, 2006 ) . Fourth, there is hold in the allotment of financess. In Cambodia, both teacher wages and Programme-Based Budgeting ( unallocated money intended for single schools, which used to be called the Priority Action Programme, or PAP ) are routinely distributed tardily. Teachers have claimed that the distribution of rewards is typically delayed ( VSO, 2008 ) . For illustration, salary expense in January 2012 had non been allocated to instructors in seven states by the terminal of the month ( Denn Ayuthyea, 2012 ) . Anecdotal narratives sing the Programme-Based Budgeting indicate that the money is frequently disbursed yearss before the District or Provincial Offices of Education require a study detailing how the money was spent. This typically leads to distort studies detailing where money was â€Å" exhausted † merely to run into the demands of the MoEYS. A 2nd issue with delayed financess is the escape that occurs between the Ministry of Economy and Finance ( the ministry responsible for let go ofing money to the MoEYS ) and when it reaches instructors. As money is passed from the Economy and Finance Ministry to the MoEYS, which is so sent to the Provincial and District Offices of Education and so eventually received by the schools, money is lost ( or â€Å" cut † in Khmer ) at each phase. One common ailment from instructors is that their wages are ne’er the right sum. Combined, low wages-made even lower by leakage-require instructors to keep 2nd occupations, which about 70 percent claim to hold ( Benveniste et al. , 2008: 68 ) . Finally, structural issues that lead to private tutoring by authorities instructors may ensue in what many perceivers consider educational corruptness ( Chapman, 2002 ) . Educational corruptness has been defined as any pattern where a instructor uses his or her monopoly of power ( delegating classs, allowing admittance, etc. ) over his or her pupils in a system with small answerability ( Bray, 2003 ) . Contributions given to instructors by pupils, for illustration, have been labelled as a â€Å" baneful pattern † ( Hallack A ; Poisson, 2008: 253 ) because some instructors may honor pupils who donate and punish those who do non. The pattern of instructors keeping private tutoring lessons for their ain pupils, nevertheless, is more hard to clearly label educational corruptness. For illustration, Johnson ( 2011 ) has provided grounds that Kyrgyzstani â€Å" pupils blame the context, non the perpetrators [ i.e. , instructors ] † ( p. 254 ) of corruptness, because â€Å" w orkers perceived to be lending to the grater good of societyaˆÂ ¦ [ are allowed to ] pervert from the jurisprudence † ( p. 253 ) . Furthermore, Dawson ( 2009: 71 ) â€Å" problematize [ vitamin D ] the word picture of the pattern as ‘corruption ‘ † in Cambodia â€Å" with consideration toward the grossly unequal income of province instructors and the jobs built-in with curriculum clip, content, and instructor teaching methods in the system † by locating the pattern of private tutoring within the â€Å" broad social issues. † To sum up, the â€Å" shadow instruction † metaphor assumes that private tutoring can react to the single pupil demands ( e.g. , maintaining up with the needed school course of study or bettering academic public presentation on trials ) and even systemic educational jobs ( e.g. , overloaded course of study or low instructor wages ) with the aid of the â€Å" shadow instruction † market. For under-achieving pupils, private tutoring may offer an chance for remedial instruction after school hours. For competitively minded pupils, private tutoring may help with more intensive readying for high-stakes scrutinies. For underpaid instructors, private tutoring may supply chances for auxiliary income. And, in the context of an overladen course of study, private tutoring may supply a infinite for pedagogues to learn the stuff that was non covered at school. On the surface, most of the factors normally associated with the turning demand for private tutoring are present in the Kampu chean context. However, they do non explicate the complicated agreements between the public educational system and private tutoring that emerged in the 1990s ( see Brehm A ; Silova, 2012 ; Brehm, forthcoming A ) . As we suggest in this survey, private tutoring is non a shadow that is separate from mainstream schooling. As the Kampuchean instance illustrates, it may be best understood as a cardinal component in a intercrossed agreement between public schooling and private tutoring, which operates as one individual system and casts its ain shadow. The â€Å" intercrossed † metaphor The metaphor of a â€Å" shadow † system of instruction reaches its conceptual bounds in the context of Cambodia. During our research, we have found that the term caused more confusion than lucidity among Kampuchean faculty members, instructors, pupils, parents, and policymakers. The ground being that the term â€Å" shadow instruction † suggests fee-based private tutoring is separate from, although influenced by, mainstream ( authorities ) school: no affair how a shadow is distorted by the form or size of its object, it will ne’er be the object projecting the shadow. The premise is that the shadow and object are basically separate. In Cambodia, nevertheless, it is normally understood that a kid ‘s instruction requires both authorities and private tutoring categories. Both are inseparable parts of one system necessary to have a complete instruction. As the mainstream schooling progressively relies on private tutoring to complement what is defined as â€Å" instruction, † the shadow and object of schooling have become one. Students typically attend one displacement ( 4 or 5 hours ) of authorities school and so go to another displacement of private tutoring categories ( 1-4 hours, depending on pupil ) each twenty-four hours, sometimes including Sundays, public vacations, and summer holiday. Students who can afford the 300-1000 Riel ( US $ 0.08-0.25 ) hourly fee for private tutoring return to school ( or teacher ‘s place ) to hold their authorities school teacher offer lessons in what appears to be the same system of instruction. In both private tutoring and authorities school categories, further more, everything is for sale, therefore film overing the lines between what is â€Å" public † ( and free ) and â€Å" private ( and for sale ) . This intercrossed system does non wipe out some of the characteristics found in â€Å" shadow † instruction worldwide. Rather, the intercrossed system of instruction that includes both authorities and private tutoring categories has cast a shadow of its ain: some pupils will go to both authorities school and private tutoring categories with their authorities school teacher and schoolmates, and so buy extra remedial or elected private tutoring in one-on-one or group settings-what is called excess particular private tutoring-at a higher cost. There are even companies offering scrutiny readying classs to pupils in the capital, Phnom Penh. Thus, the boundaries between the typical construct of â€Å" shadow † instruction and the mainstream system of instruction, which is being privatized by private tutoring, are progressively blurred in the Kampuchean context. Public-Private Hybrid Education System In the Kampuchean context, private tutoring is best understood in footings of a public-private intercrossed instruction system where public schooling and private tutoring seamlessly merge, projecting its ain shadow. This conceptualisation implies that private tutoring is a compulsory ( private ) part of public instruction, non a deformed shadow, and therefore complements mainstream schooling where it is structurally lacking. Unlike the metaphor of a â€Å" shadow, † the construct of a public-private intercrossed system suggests that public schooling and private tutoring constitute two parts of one system. This conceptualisation moves off from auxiliary private tutoring ( that is, lessons that are excess to the national course of study ) and towards complementary private tutoring ( that is, lessons that are indispensable to the national course of study ) . A public-private intercrossed system of instruction implies that pupils are required to go to and pay for both public schooling and private tutoring to successfully finish the full national course of study. The map of complementary private tutoring therefore extends far beyond â€Å" shadowing † the mainstream system through remedial and/or enrichment instruction chances ( although these signifiers of auxiliary private tutoring continue to be in Cambodia ) . In the Kampuchean context, the chief signifier of complementary private tutoring-w hat is called Rien Kuo-assumes the maps of the mainstream instruction system itself by functioning as an of import mechanism necessary to finish the needed national course of study and increase teacher salaries-both structural failures that have complicated histories through Gallic colonialism, race murder, Soviet support, and broad internationalism/neoliberalism. As an built-in portion of the public-private intercrossed instruction system, private tutoring assumes the same schoolroom features and teaching method as mainstream schooling. Not merely does private tutoring occur inside authorities school edifices ( and frequently in the same schoolrooms where pupils receive official authorities school direction ) and is offered by public school instructors ( normally by the same instructors pupils have during regular school hours ) , but besides each category operates and maps in surprisingly similar ways. In peculiar, the usage of learning AIDSs, group work, interchanging pupil work, blending high and low ability pupils together, and even homework assignments happen in more or less the same mode in authorities school as private tutoring categories ( Brehm A ; Silova, 2012 ) . In other words, it operates as a seamless system, which merely maps efficaciously when the two parts-public schooling and private tutoring-are offered in tandem. Furthermo re, the public-private intercrossed instruction system does non halt operation when school is officially closed. Alternatively, instruction continues in the signifier of Rien Kuo Pel Vissmakkal ( Vacances ) or excess survey during vacations ( holiday ) , when kids attend private tutoring lessons during public vacations and summer interruptions to either complete the old twelvemonth ‘s course of study or acquire a head start on the approaching twelvemonth ‘s course of study. In a manner, private tutoring seems to hold been consistently integrated in mainstream schooling, organizing an institutionalised public-private intercrossed educational agreement. Table 1. Different Types of Private Tutoring in Cambodia Public-Private Hybrid Education System Rien Kuo Extra survey Some instructors conduct private tutoring lessons to their ain pupils after school hours either in school edifices or in their place. The focal point is on covering needed school course of study, which is non taught during school hours. This is the most common signifier of tutoring and the focal point of this survey. It is besides referred to as Rean Boban Porn ( auxiliary survey ) or Rean Chhnuol ( survey for hire ) . Rien Kuo Pel Vissmakkal ( Vacances ) Extra survey during vacations ( holiday ) When pupils finish school in July or August, they frequently have the pick of go toing private tutoring lessons during the summer interruption. These categories are either conducted by their pervious class ‘s instructor to complete the course of study from that class or by the following class ‘s instructor to get down the course of study before the following school twelvemonth. This gives instructors plenty time-either at the beginning or terminal of the year-to complete the national course of study. Shadow Education Rien Kuo Pises Extra particular survey Government school teachers conduct private tutoring lessons one-on-one or for little groups of pupils, typically from the instructors ‘ authorities category. These lessons are conducted after school hours either at the instructor ‘s place or a pupil ‘s place. This type of private tutoring is more expensive than the former, sometimes bing every bit much as $ 100 per month for one-on-one tutoring. This type of private tutoring is either used by pupils for remedial lessons ( i.e. , shadow instruction ) or for replacing authorities school wholly. Indeed, we found one instance during our informations aggregation where a pupil came into understanding with his instructor to go to one-on-one Rien Kuo Pises and was non required to go to authorities school on a regular basis because his instructor would tag him present. This type of Rien Kuo Pises resembles private schooling more closely than shadow or intercrossed instruction. Sala Akchoan Private ( tutoring ) school There are many types of private schools in Cambodia. From English linguistic communication based schools to private universities to engineering developing centres-all of these schools are considered Sala Akchoan ( private survey ) . However, there is one type of private survey within this class that is portion of the shadow instruction system. In Phnom Penh ( and possibly other urban countries ) , there are a few trial readying centres that fill schoolrooms each dark as pupils â€Å" cram † for the national scrutinies and university entryway scrutinies. The most celebrated is named Chey Thavy, which was started by a chemical science professor from the Royal University of Phnom Penh. For the class 12 scrutinies, many pupils start fixing in grade 10 or 11. Preparation for the university scrutinies typically takes topographic point during the four months between the class 12 scrutinies ( July/August ) and when the university scrutinies are administered. Rien Kuo Anglais/Barang English/French supernumerary survey Get downing in lower secondary school, the national course of study requires pupils to take foreign linguistic communication, either English ( Anglais ) or Gallic ( Barang ) . Despite that these linguistic communications are on the course of study, some pupils purchase excess categories outside of authorities school in countless private educational centres/schools/homes. This intercrossed system of instruction has besides cast its ain shadow, reflecting the typical maps of private tutoring found within the â€Å" shadow † metaphor ( see Table 1 ) . Similar to private tutoring in other geographic contexts, remedial and enrichment tutoring chances are available in add-on to the traditional Rien Kuo in Cambodia. In peculiar, pupils who need excess assist understanding assorted topics can buy extra educational services to increase their cognition. This type of tutoring is less common and is often referred to as Rien Kuo Pises or â€Å" excess particular private tutoring. † It is offered in the signifier of one-on-one tutoring or little group lessons for pupils who need excess aid get the hanging certain topics. These categories typically cost more than Rien Kuo, sometimes every bit high as US $ 100 per month for a day-to-day category on one school topic. In add-on, private tutoring for enrichment intents is available through private tutorin g concerns in Phnom Phen, where pupils â€Å" cram † for high-stakes scrutinies. In other words, the intercrossed system-where public schooling is integrated with private tutoring-casts a shadow that is comprised of assorted remedial and enrichment tutoring infinites. Building on the bing research of private tutoring in Cambodia, this survey examines the equity issues ensuing from a public-private intercrossed system of schooling. This research looks at the differences and similarities between private tutoring ( Rien Kuo ) and authorities school categories. Datas from this research undertaking has besides been used in other publications to analyze how private tutoring is an extension of authorities school in footings of teaching method and curricular content ( Brehm A ; Silova, 2012 ) ; the building of a post-conflict societal contract in the 1990s and its impact on the impression of public instruction ( Brehm, forthcoming A ) ; and a historical analysis of mandatory instruction ( Brehm, forthcoming B ) . A Khmer version of this study ( although non a direct interlingual rendition ) is besides available ( Tuot A ; Brehm, 2012 ) . This study takes an in-depth expression at instruction inside authorities schools and private tutoring schoolrooms, e very bit good as the deductions of private tutoring for instruction quality and equity, therefore offering a elaborate reappraisal of the informations collected for this OSI funded research undertaking ( Silova A ; Brehm, 2011 ) . Research Design and Methods The research design consisted of three parts, including ( 1 ) an scrutiny of the province constructions, policies, and local patterns that allow for the being of the private proviso of instruction through private tutoring ; ( 2 ) the differences in the quality of instruction proviso between public schools and private tutoring ; and ( 3 ) the equity impacts on instruction and Kampuchean society because of any quality differences and known cost barriers to accessing private tutoring ( see Figure 2 ) . Using participatory research attacks, this survey utilized methods normally used in Participatory Rural Appraisals ( PRA ) . One of the benefits of utilizing PRA methods is that â€Å" it provides a huge range and infinite for both people every bit good as foreigners to actively take part at every phase † of the research ( Narayanasamy, 2009: 26 ) . By keeping focal point groups ( 5-7 people ) and carry oning one-on-one interviews with many instruction stakeholders ( sample described in item below ) , our informations involved the engagement of many people within both the urban and rural schools under probe. The semi-structured focal point groups provided infinite for participants to research issues of quality instruction and the function private tutoring has on educational equity. We conducted semi-structured interviews as good over the class of the twelve-month informations aggregation period to make common apprehension and trust between the research workers and respondents in hopes of bring forthing more accurate information on subjects that could be sensitive. Additionally, informal interviews helped us by â€Å" prosecuting in existent or constructed duologues in order to understand the people studied in their ain footings ( sometimes described as the insider ‘s position ) † ( England cited in Sin, 2010: 986 ) . Another benefit of utilizing the PRA method is triangulation of information. Our design incorporated non merely data triangulation ( roll uping informations from persons and the synergistic degree among groups ) but besides investigator triangulation and methodological triangulation. Some focal point groups were conducted by a squad of two research workers who so worked through their findings jointly. Furthermore, these informations points were compared with informations points obtained utilizing different methods, viz. , schoolroom observations and the analysis of academic accomplishment ( monthly classs and attending ) for pupils who were go toing private tutoring lessons and those who are non. Additionally, we built off historical analyses and updated papers analyses of authorities policies in old research to the present. The methods used in each school are described below and the instruments used to roll up the informations can be found in the appendix. Figure 2. Research Design and Methods This survey is based on informations collected between January and December 2011. The sample included six schools in one territory in Cambodia, including three schools in an urban location and three schools in a rural location.[ 6 ]The territory is economically and geographically diverse, offering penetration into assorted countries throughout Cambodia. The sample was intentionally chosen to reflect a scope of private tutoring costs in different schools depending on their geographic ( urban or rural ) location. After roll uping preliminary informations on the cost for one session of private tutoring within all lower secondary schools ( 13 ) in the territory, we selected one lower secondary school with the highest private tutoring costs ( 1,000 Riel, or about US $ 0.25, per session ) and one with lowest ( 500 Riel, or about US $ 0.13, per session ) , which besides corresponded to urban and rural countries severally. We so worked backwards to happen two primary schools that fed into ea ch lower secondary school. The concluding schools selected were chosen by their willingness to take part in the survey. Observations A sum of 28 observations were conducted, including 14 observations of public school categories and 14 observations of private tutoring lessons ( see Table 2 ) . However, these observations did non include private tutoring lessons in rural primary schools, because no such lessons were held during the four months of informations aggregation. Observation rubrics were developed utilizing instruments from a World Bank commissioned study on Cambodia ( Benveniste et al. , 2008 ) that focused on learning methodological analysis, schoolroom features, and category clip usage. The inquiries within each of these classs were so compiled into an observation checklist adapted for the last twelvemonth of primary and secondary school ( classs 6 and 9 severally ) , and used for observations of teaching/learning procedures in both public school categories and private tutoring lessons.[ 7 ] Table 2. Number of Observations by Subject and Grade Class Capable Number of Observations Government Class Private Tutoring Entire Grade 6 Khmer 7 2 9 Matematics 1 1 2 Grade 9 Khmer 3 2 5 Mathematicss 1 2 3 Physicss 2 3 5 Chemistry 0 4 4 Entire 14 14 28 Tracking pupil attending and accomplishment Datas on academic accomplishment and attending came from tracking 444 pupils ( see Table 3 ) , including 162 pupils in primary school ( rate 6 ) and 282 pupils in secondary school ( rate 9 ) . The pupils tracked in class 9 came from six categories[ 9 ]across four topics: mathematics, Khmer linguistic communication, chemical science, and natural philosophies. Although we were able to track the same categories in the rural school across all topics, a different group of categories was tracked in each of the topics in the urban secondary school. Therefore, although 282 pupils in class 9 were tracked, the figure of alone pupils in each topic varies depending on which group of categories was tracked in the urban class 9: 171 pupils in mathematics, 208 pupils in chemical science, and 203 pupils in Khmer linguistic communication.[ 10 ]At the primary degree, one category of pupils was tracked in each school. Table 3. Trailing of Student Attendance and Achievement ( Sample ) Experience with Private Tutoring Location Entire Rural Urban Primary Private Tutoring 24 43 67 No Private Tutoring 67 28 95 Entire Number of Tracked Students at the Primary Level 162 Lower Secondary Private Tutoring 75 118 193 No Private Tutoring 38 51 89 Entire Number of Tracked Students at the Secondary Level 282 Entire Number of Tracked Students 444 Student attending of private tutoring lessons was tracked utilizing a private tutoring attending sheet specifically designed for this survey. While most participants used the attending sheet, pupil attending in private tutoring within some urban class 9 and all rural class 6 categories was provided by either the remembrances of the instructor, the entire money collected from pupils by the instructor, or an attendance sheet. These tracking systems were discussed separately with each instructor by traveling through the attending list from school and holding the instructor identify either how much money each pupil provided for private tutoring ( a record kept by some instructors ) or by bespeaking their perceptual experiences of how frequently a pupil attended private tutoring ( either by memory or an attendance sheet designed by the instructor ) . This allowed us to place which pupils attended at least one private tutoring lesson during our informations aggregation period. The principa l of each school provided authorities attending and monthly class sheets. Data presented here screens attendance and monthly classs for one month,[ 11 ]leting for a comparing of academic accomplishment and private tutoring attending among pupils who attend private tutoring and those who do non. The academic tonss for class 9 focused on the topics of mathematics, Khmer linguistic communication, and chemical science. For class 6, we focused on a combination of mathematics and Khmer linguistic communication ( Khmer command, Khmer authorship, and Khmer reading ) . Although the sample is little, covers a short clip, and does non take into consideration external factors impacting pupil accomplishment ( parental instruction, past educational experience of the pupil, proviso of tutoring other than that provided by the instructor, etc. ) , our intent here was non to find causing between private tutoring and pupil accomplishment, but instead to foreground a disparity between pupils who go and do non travel to private tutoring as one factor that divides pupils and contributes to inequality. Focus groups and interviews Focus groups and interviews were conducted with pupils, parents, and instructors. Participants were selected by confer withing the principal or instructor of each school or category, who so helped set up interviews and concentrate groups with community members and pupils. Although the principal or instructor could hold purposefully selected or prepared participants, this scheme was the lone politically executable option given authorities limitations. Notwithstanding these restrictions, we did happen all participants willing to speak openly approximately private tutoring and its exclusionary characteristics. Overall, 21 focal point groups were conducted, which included a sum of 118 participants ( see Table 4 ) . Focus groups were split by stakeholder groups ( pupils, instructors, and parents ) and so by their engagement in private tutoring lessons. The end of dividing the stakeholders was to increase the comfort degree among persons in each focal point group in order to research their experiences with private tutoring. The focal point groups besides discussed perceptual experiences of the impact of tutoring on instruction quality and equity. In add-on, informal interviews were conducted with 21 participants, including instructors, pupils, parents, and principals from other schools. These informal interviews focused on the experiences of persons with private tutoring, assisting us to construe some of the findings from the observations and concentrate groups. Table 4. Number of Focus Groups ( and Participants ) in Rural and Urban Areas Stakeholders Primary Lower Secondary Combined Class Degrees Entire Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Teachers ( entire ) 6 ( 28 ) Private tutoring 1 ( 3 ) 1 ( 3 ) 1 ( 8 ) 3 ( 14 ) Non-private tutoring 2 ( 7 ) 1 ( 5 ) 3 ( 12 ) Students ( entire ) 11 ( 69 ) Private tutoring 2 ( 14 ) 2 ( 12 ) 1 ( 7 ) 1 ( 5 ) 6 ( 38 ) Non-private tutoring 2 ( 12 ) 2 ( 12 ) 1 ( 7 ) 5 ( 31 ) Parents ( sum ) 4 ( 23 ) Private tutoring 1 ( 5 ) 1 ( 4 ) 2 ( 9 ) Non-private tutoring 1 ( 5 ) 1 ( 9 ) 2 ( 14 ) Entire 21 ( 118 ) Note: The Numberss in parenthesis are the entire figure of participants within each class. Document analysis Document analysis included a reappraisal of authorities policies and Torahs related to instruction support and instructor wages. In add-on, we analyzed assorted studies on instruction quality and equity in Cambodia published by non-governmental organisations ( NGOs ) and international bureaus ( such as the World Bank, UNICEF, and UNESCO ) . Combined, informations gained through papers analysis, schoolroom observations, academic accomplishment and attending, every bit good as focal point groups and interviews were triangulated to ease proof of informations through cross confirmation from multiple beginnings and informations aggregation techniques. See Table 5 for an overview of the research methods. Table 5. Overview of Research Methods Observations A sum of 28 observations were conducted, including 14 observations of public school categories and 14 observations of private tutoring lessons. In primary schools, observations were conducted in mathematics and Khmer linguistic communication categories. In lower secondary schools, observations were conducted in Khmer linguistic communication, mathematics, natural philosophies, and chemical science. The same observation process was held for private tutoring lessons conducted by each instructor. How does the instructor Teach during mainstream instruction ( learning methods and curriculum content ) ? Does the instructor favor certain pupils? Who are they? What are the learning methods and content in private tutoring? How are the two instruction manners different? Trailing of Student Attendance and Achievement Datas on academic accomplishment and attending came from tracking 444 pupils, including 162 pupils in primary schools ( rate 6 ) and 282 pupils in secondary schools ( rate 9 ) . The end was to analyze whether ( and how ) private tutoring impacts pupils academic accomplishment in different topics. What are the differences in pupils ‘ academic accomplishment for those who do and make no go to private tutoring? Focus Groups and Interviews Focus groups with pupils, parents, and instructors were held over the class of informations aggregation to analyze their experiences with private tutoring and their perceptual experience about the impact of private tutoring on instruction entree and quality. A sum of 21 focal point groups were conducted. In add-on, A sum of 21 informal interviews were conducted with parents, instructors, and pupils throughout the informations aggregation period. What are the chief grounds kids attend private tutoring? Which topics are most popular? How much does it be? What are the difference in learning between private tutoring and authorities school? How does private tutoring impact you, your household, and your small town? Document Analysis Government policies and Torahs related to instruction, 1992-present. Focus on authorities support of instruction and instructor wages. What are the system-driven factors ( national policies and Torahs ) lending to the rise of private tutoring? The Nature, Impact, and Implications of Rien Kuo: Findingss Concentrating on the range, nature, and deductions of Rien Kuo, the findings of the survey are organized around the undermentioned three chief classs: ( 1 ) course of study differences between Rien Kuo and mainstream schooling, ( 2 ) accomplishment differences among pupils go toing private tutoring and those who do non, and ( 3 ) social affects of private tutoring. Before researching each of these subjects in more deepness, it is of import to supply a few descriptive statistics on the strength and signifier of private tutoring within our sample. General features of Rien Kuo Of the 282 pupils tracked in class 9, 193 pupils ( 68.4 per centum ) attended at least one private tutoring category during the clip of the informations aggregation. At the primary school degree, the range of private tutoring was lower, with 41.3 per centum of all surveyed pupils ( 67 out of 162 ) go toing private tutoring. The strength of private tutoring varied by topic in class 9, with 57 per centum of surveyed pupils go toing private tutoring in mathematics, 54 per centum in Khmer linguistic communication, and 37 per centum in chemical science ( see Table 6 ) . Comparing the strength among topics, a similar per centum of pupils accompanied private tutoring lessons in Khmer linguistic communication and mathematics, but a smaller per centum of pupils accompanied chemical science lessons. One account for the difference in frequence between Khmer linguistic communication and mathematics with chemical science is the manner in which classs are calculated. Each month instructors adminis ter their ain capable scrutinies to their categories. These scrutinies are neither standardized in footings of content nor monitored in footings of rating rubrics. The tonss across all topics are so added for each pupil and divided by the entire figure of possible points, which varies by month depending on the topics covered. Average capable and overall classs are reported monthly on pupil mark sheets, bespeaking the ranking of the pupil among his or her schoolmates. Across all degrees of schooling, the topics of Khmer linguistic communication and mathematics account for 100 points ( sometimes more[ 12 ]) while the other topics merely account for 50 points on monthly mark sheets. This means hiting higher in Khmer linguistic communication or mathematics will hold a greater positive impact on pupils overall grade each month than making good on topics like chemical science, which merely account for 50 points.[ 13 ] A farther analysis of informations by geographic location ( rural versus urban ) reveals a higher strength of private tutoring usage in urban countries compared to rural countries. In primary schools, for illustration, 60.5 per centum of urban pupils attended private tutoring categories compared to 26.4 per centum of pupils in rural countries. The one exclusion within our informations set is for Khmer linguistic communication private tutoring in class 9 where more rural pupils attended private tutoring than urban pupils. This divergent determination can be explained in two ways. First, it can be partly attributed to parental pick. If parents can merely afford private tutoring in one topic, Khmer linguistic communication was perceived as most valuable because of the rating policies described above and the general perceptual experience that literacy is a necessary life accomplishment. Second, within the rural categories tracked, 19 pupils who attended private tutoring were supported ( i.e. , provided money to go to private tutoring ) by an NGO. Without fiscal support to pay the private tutoring fees, these 19 pupils would most probably non hold attended the excess classs in any topic. Controling for these pupils, we find that merely 39 per centum of pupils attend Khmer linguistic communication private tutoring in the rural school compared to 52 per centum in the urban school. This is in understanding with the general determination of a higher strength of private tutoring within urban schools. There were besides noticeable differences between authorities school and private tutoring category sizes. Since Rien Kuo is seldom offered in a one-on-one scene and is alternatively taught to larger groups of pupils, it closely resembles categories in mainstream schools. Nevertheless, Rien Kuo category sizes are by and large smaller than those in mainstream schools.[ 14 ]Based on our observations and attending trailing, the mean category size of authorities school in class 9 ( both urban and rural ) was 42 pupils. By contrast, private tutoring categories were, on norm, 21 pupils. Interrupting these informations down by location, we find that the mean category size in authorities school is 56 pupils in the urban lower secondary school and 35 pupils in the rural lower secondary school. By contrast, private tutoring categories were on mean 37 pupils and 17 pupils in urban and rural schools, severally. This suggests that private tutoring categories are ( 1 ) smaller than authorities scho ol irrespective the location, and ( 2 ) urban countries have larger category sizes in both authorities school categories and private tutoring lessons compared to rural countries. Table 6. Intensity of Private Tutoring by Subject, Grade 9 Students in authorities category Students in private tutoring % of pupils in private tutoring Mathematicss Urban 58 35 60.34 Rural 113 63 55.75 Entire 171 98 57.31 Chemistry Urban 95 58 61.05 Rural 113 19 16.81 Entire 208 77 37.02 Khmer Language Urban 90 47 52.22 Rural 113 64 56.64 Entire 203 111 54.68 Course of study differences Given that Rien Kuo by and large takes topographic point on school evidences, normally in the same schoolrooms where authorities school categories are held, there are some interesting continuities between Rien Kuo and mainstream schooling. Data collected from schoolroom observations and triangulated with interviews and concentrate groups suggest that private tutoring is in many respects a continuance of authorities school in footings of learning methodological analysis and course of study content ( see Table 7 ) . For illustration, instructors appear to delegate prep ( 43 per centum of private tutoring categories observed and 64 in authorities categories ) and even present new stuff in private tutoring lessons ( 36 per centum of the private tutoring categories and 79 per centum of authorities categories ) . Likewise, pupils appear to be involved in similar activities in both authorities categories and private tutoring lessons, including replying multiple pick inquiries ( 14 per centu m ) and reacting to instructors give illustration to whole category ( 78 per centum ) . Table 7. Similarities between Government School and Private Tutoring Classs Teacher Pedagogy Government School N=14 % of categories observed ( figure of categories observed ) Private Tutoring N=14 % of categories observed ( figure of categories observed ) High ability pupils work with low ability pupils 28.6 ( 4 ) 14.3 ( 2 ) High ability pupils help learn whole category 71.4 ( 10 ) 50.0 ( 7 ) Name on weak pupils to reply inquiries 50.0 ( 7 ) 42.9 ( 6 ) Students answer multiple pick inquiries 14.3 ( 2 ) 14.3 ( 2 ) Students answer inquiries at board 100.0 ( 14 ) 71.4 ( 10 ) Teacher assigns prep 64.3 ( 9 ) 42.9 ( 6 ) Teacher nowadayss new stuff 78.6 ( 11 ) 35.7 ( 5 ) Teacher provides whole category direction 100.0 ( 14 ) 85.7 ( 12 ) Students answer in chorus 71.4 ( 10 ) 64.3 ( 9 ) Teacher gives illustration to whole category 78.6 ( 11 ) 78.6 ( 11 ) The focal point groups with instructors provided in-depth qualitative information to congratulate the observations sing learning methodological analysis and the course of study used in authorities school categories and private tutoring lessons. The first subject that emerged in the focal point groups was the overpowering sentiment that the national course of study is excessively long to finish during authorities school hours. Some instructors said they had to â€Å" hotfoot † through the course of study to complete on clip and feared being held accountable for non completing. For illustration, one instructor who conducts private tutoring explained: We rush to maintain up with the course of study. [ During official school hours ] , we teach merely theory and give merely a few illustrations. If pupils go to private tutoring, they can pattern [ at the board ] because there are fewer pupils who goaˆÂ ¦We can non acquire all pupils to pattern [ at the board ] in authorities category. It requires a batch of clip. The â€Å" haste † to complete the course of study is a consequence of a course of study excessively â€Å" full † to finish during the allotted clip. One history instructor who sends his kids to private tutoring explained: â€Å" [ The ministry ] allows small clip [ to learn ] . I teach based on the [ allowed ] clip. If the course of study is non finished, [ so ] I allow it travel because there is non adequate clip. [ Although ] I try my best, it is still impossible [ to learn everything ] . † The bulk of instructors agreed that the course of study clip provided by the MoEYS was non sufficient for pupils to pattern the theory they learned during school hours and that they conducted private tutoring to supply more pattern clip for pupils to complement the cognition gained. In other words, private tutoring provided the necessary clip to complete the course of study to a perceived higher criterion. As one instructor who does non carry on private tutoring explained, â€Å" Private tutoring instructors take the lessons learned in the authorities category and supply more pattern in private tutoring. They even add more [ stuff excluded in the authorities category ] . † From instructors ‘ positions, quality instruction could non be achieved during regular school hours. One of the How to cite The Public Private Education System Education Essay, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

MIT 2017-2018 Essay Prompts

Applying to MIT this fall? Check out the 2017-2018 MIT essay prompts!If MIT is your dream school, you should already know that MIT does not use the Common Application. Instead, they have their own application platform called MyMIT. Keep in mind MIT’s application is slightly different. The main difference is that the MIT application doesn’t ask for a single, longform essay, otherwise known as the personal statement or the Common App essay. Instead, MIT asks applicants to submit short answer essays to five questions. Much like the Common Application essay prompts, MIT’s question prompts do occasionally change between application cycle. For this year’s 2017-2018 application cycle, however, MIT has chosen to keep the same 5 question prompts they had last year. Essay Prompt #1 We know you lead a busy life, full of activities, many of which are required of you. Tell us about something you do simply for the pleasure of it. (100 words or fewer) TIP: This is an opportunity for you to elaborate on an extracurricular youre really dedicate to. Or, you choose to talk about another hobby you have that was never related to school or extracurriculars. Maybe its something you do to help you destress like running or drawing, but youve never been on the track team or part of an art club. The point is to showcase what you enjoy doing during your free time.Essay Prompt #2 Although you may not yet know what you want to major in, which department or program at MIT appeals to you and why? (100 words or fewer) TIP: Given the word limit, this response is basically a very concise Why MIT supplement, so theres no opportunity for you to write something fluffy. Make sure you know why you want to attend MIT and be specific about it. If you have trouble, here are the dos donts on writing the Why Us supplement. Essay Prompt #3 At MIT, we bring people together to better the lives of others. MIT students work to improve their communities in different ways, from tackling the world’s biggest challenges to being a good friend. Describe one way in which you have contributed to your community, whether in your family, the classroom, your neighborhood, etc. (200-250 words)Heres an essay example: â€Å"To bring more enthusiasm for STEM to my school, I wanted to organize students to compete at the Harvard-MIT Mathematics Tournament in November 2013. I advertised, led practices and created itineraries. Ultimately, both an online team and an in-person team competed.†Ronayw, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ‘20 Essay Prompt #4 Describe the world you come from; for example, your family, clubs, school, community, city, or town. How has that world shaped your dreams and aspirations? (200-250 words) Heres an essay example: â€Å"Spending the summers at my grandparents’ farm, far from any sign of civilization, I was excited to dive into their small library with botany books, that were my treasure maps during the walks in the forest. As I grew older, I warmly recalled those moments for they have planted the seed of curiosity in my mind and formed my dream to become a scientist† VladlenaH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ‘21 Essay Prompt #5 Tell us about the most significant challenge you’ve faced or something important that didn’t go according to plan. How did you manage the situation? (200-250 words)Heres an example: â€Å"‘No, that can’t be right,† I declared to my two partners as we shared looks of confusion after examining our Petri dishes. With only a week left before our final reports were due, my team had no conclusive data regarding sunscreen and its efficacy in shielding our yeast against the sun’s death rays.†MIT2018, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ‘18 ——— Interested in reading successful essay examples that got students accepted into MIT? Unlock all of them in one go withour curated package Ourpremium plansoffer different level of profile access and data insights that can help you get into your dream school. Unlock any of ourpackagesor search ourundergraduate profile databaseto find specific profiles that can help you make an informed choice about where to apply!

Friday, March 20, 2020

Free Essays on Statutory Rape

What is happening to the relationships we once thought were all OK? What are these relationships that are so appalling, that it’s illegal? It is known as Statutory Rape. It is considered to be a relationship with a boy or girl that is under the age of 18, who are wrongfully having a sexual relationship with a boy or girl who is over the age of 18. But these â€Å"such age differences are of little public interest†(Darroch, Jacqueline 1) which can’t really assist to the laws that have already been written and stated. One of the original laws were â€Å"designed to protect adolescent girls from sex under any circumstances, regardless of whether, there was consent.†(Westphal, Sylvia 4) Also another law was â€Å"a group of steps taken that make punishments harsh, including first, second, and third.†(Westphal, Sylvia 4) The reason that the nation is trying to be more tough on this issue is because many minors do not know what they are getting themselves into, with no responsibility, and even acknowledgment of what could happen next, and this next problem would either be an unwanted pregnancy or a life threatening disease. The following facts lead to the research of my paper, of how punishments need to be more strictly involved in these uncontrolling relationships of statutory rape that lead a child into a terrible life of an inexperienced minor. Age makes a big difference in any relationship that is involved with a minor. One example is â€Å"any minor that gives birth to a baby know very little and don’t have the responsibility or even age to deal with parenting.†(Darroch, Jacqueline 1) For the opposite, an adult should very well have more experience than a minor, and is more likely able to live independently, then a minor who is most likely still living with their parents, and attending school. They don’t have any time to raise a child. But in most cases, unexpected pregnancies with a minor a... Free Essays on Statutory Rape Free Essays on Statutory Rape What is happening to the relationships we once thought were all OK? What are these relationships that are so appalling, that it’s illegal? It is known as Statutory Rape. It is considered to be a relationship with a boy or girl that is under the age of 18, who are wrongfully having a sexual relationship with a boy or girl who is over the age of 18. But these â€Å"such age differences are of little public interest†(Darroch, Jacqueline 1) which can’t really assist to the laws that have already been written and stated. One of the original laws were â€Å"designed to protect adolescent girls from sex under any circumstances, regardless of whether, there was consent.†(Westphal, Sylvia 4) Also another law was â€Å"a group of steps taken that make punishments harsh, including first, second, and third.†(Westphal, Sylvia 4) The reason that the nation is trying to be more tough on this issue is because many minors do not know what they are getting themselves into, with no responsibility, and even acknowledgment of what could happen next, and this next problem would either be an unwanted pregnancy or a life threatening disease. The following facts lead to the research of my paper, of how punishments need to be more strictly involved in these uncontrolling relationships of statutory rape that lead a child into a terrible life of an inexperienced minor. Age makes a big difference in any relationship that is involved with a minor. One example is â€Å"any minor that gives birth to a baby know very little and don’t have the responsibility or even age to deal with parenting.†(Darroch, Jacqueline 1) For the opposite, an adult should very well have more experience than a minor, and is more likely able to live independently, then a minor who is most likely still living with their parents, and attending school. They don’t have any time to raise a child. But in most cases, unexpected pregnancies with a minor a...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Cómo renovar pasaporte americano para adultos y niños

Cà ³mo renovar pasaporte americano para adultos y nià ±os Los ciudadanos estadounidenses deben renovar a tiempo su pasaporte porque necesitan estar en posesià ³n de su vlido pasaporte para viajar al extranjero y regresar a EEUU,   salvo casos muy especiales  en los que se admiten otro tipo de documentos. Adems, para viajes de Canad, Mà ©xico, Bermudas hacia EEUU es suficiente para los ciudadanos tener una Tarjeta de pasaporte (Passport Card,) siempre y cuando la entrada se realice por tierra o por mar, no por aeropuerto. Los requisitos para renovarla son los mismos pero es ms econà ³mica. En este artà ­culo se informa sobre los tres posibles casos que se dan para renovar el pasaporte americano, de quà © debe saberse antes de solicitarla y de quà © documentos pueden utilizarse para acelerar el paso en los controles migratorios. 3 casos de renovacià ³n de pasaporte americano Hay que distinguir entre tres posibles situaciones y cada persona debe seguir las reglas que le aplican segà ºn lo siguiente: cuando la persona que renueva tiene ms de 16 aà ±os y puede renovar por correo,  tanto en USA como cuando se encuentra en otro paà ­s.Cuando no se puede renovar por correo y hay que personarse para la solicitud, aà ºn cuando se tiene ms de 16 aà ±os.Los casos de nià ±os menores de 16 aà ±os, para los que aplican reglas especiales, tanto dentro de Estados Unidos como fuera. Renovacià ³n del pasaporte americano por correo Para estar capacitado para solicitar la renovacià ³n por correo es necesario cumplir todas y cada una de las siguientes condiciones: El pasaporte actual està © en buen estado y puede ser enviado con la solicitudFue emitido cuando su titular era mayor de 16 aà ±osFue emitido hace menos de 15 aà ±osEl pasaporte actual est en buen estadoEst al nombre actual de su titular o puede demostrar con un documento legal su cambio de nombre El titular del pasaporte que solicita la renovacià ³n puede encontrarse en Estados Unidos o en el extranjero. En este à ºltimo caso, verificar con la pgina del consulado porque puede haber reglas distintas segà ºn el lugar. Para solicitar la renovacià ³n debe completarse el formulario DS-82 en la computadora o a a manualmente con tinta negra y asegurarse de firmarlo. Adems, una fotografà ­a de pasaporte tomada en los à ºltimos seis meses debe unirse al documento DS-82 en el espacio habilitado para ello. En el caso de encontrarse fuera de los Estados Unidos, asegurarse de cumplir las reglas de medidas de la foto que, en muchos casos, son diferentes a las que aplican en otros lugares. Es fundamental respetar las medidas que se piden en el formulario DS-82 y que aparecen claramente indicadas. Adems del formulario DS-82 debidamente cumplimentado, firmado y con fotografà ­a deben enviarse los siguientes documentos: El pasaporte ms reciente. Se regresar ms tarde en un paquete diferente al el que se envà ­a el pasaporte nuevo.Si el nombre del titular ha cambiado, una copia certificada del certificado de matrimonio o de la orden de la corte.El pago de las correspondientes tasas. Se debe pagar con una money order o con un cheque. Nunca envà ­e dinero. Si se est en el extranjero, leer detenidamente los tipos de cheque que se admiten y tambià ©n la cantidad exacta ya que puede estar cambiada a la moneda local. Tambià ©n fijarse en el nombre exacto que debe aparecer en la parte de a quià ©n es pagadero el cheque. Se recomienda enviar por correo certificado a la direccià ³n que aparece en el formulario y que es diferente segà ºn se trate de una tramitacià ³n ordinaria o urgente, si se est en el interior de Estados Unidos.Si se est en el exterior, se envà ­a a la Embajada o al Consulado que corresponda. En cuanto al tiempo de tramitacià ³n, generalmente se tarda entre 3 y seis semanas y ms pero puede pagarse una tarifa para acelerar el proceso  si se est dentro de Estados Unidos.  Si existiera una urgencia para obtener el pasaporte, se puede acudir a una Agencia autorizada. Cuando se est en el extranjero y existe una emergencia por la que es necesario viajar a Estados Unidos, es posible contactar con una embajada o consulado, demostrar la emergencia y recibir un documento para viajar que tiene una fecha limitada en el caso de tener el pasaporte expirado. En este caso, vez que se realiza el viaje, hay que solicitar un pasaporte regular bien dentro de Estados Unidos o en el extranjero. Cundo un adulto no puede solicitar la renovacià ³n del pasaporte por correo No se puede aplicar por correo para renovar el pasaporte americano cuando no cumplen con todos y cada uno de los los requisitos seà ±alados anteriormente. Por ejemplo, cuando se ha tenido un pasaporte pero emitido como nià ±o menor de 16 aà ±os. En estos casos en los que se pide por primera vez la renovacià ³n pero como adulto es necesario presentarse en persona en una agencia u oficina autorizada, si se est dentro de Estados Unidos o en la Embajada o consulado, si se est en otro paà ­s. Un caso comà ºn en el que no se puede solicitar por correo la renovacià ³n del pasaporte americano  de un adulto es el de supuesto de robo o extravà ­o del pasaporte. Puede ser un gran dolor de cabeza y esto  es lo que hay que hacer tan pronto como uno se dà © cuenta de que no tiene el pasaporte en su poder. En estos casos,  documento a llenar es el DS-11. Renovacià ³n de pasaporte de menores Los pasaporte de nià ±os tienen reglas especiales para evitar situaciones muy desafortunadas como el secuestro de un menor.   Para evitar esos tipos de problemas los menores de 16 aà ±os tienen pasaportes por sà ³lo 5 aà ±os y deben estar presentes junto con sus padres en el momento de solicitar la renovacià ³n del pasaporte. Esto aplica tanto en Estados Unidos como cuando se est fuera del paà ­s. El gobierno es consciente de que a veces es complicado o imposible que los dos padres està ©n presentes, por eso establece reglas sobre cundo no es necesaria la presencia de los dos progenitores y tambià ©n quà © se puede hacer cuando aà ºn siendo obligatoria la vida real hace que sea imposible o muy difà ­cil. Si se tiene un nià ±o que es ciudadano estadounidense es conveniente informarse sobre documentacià ³n que pueden necesitar si viajan solos en un viaje internacional o si lo hacen con solo uno de sus padres. De informacià ³n de interà ©s antes de solicitar la renovacià ³n En algunos casos, el  no estar al dà ­a en el pago de la pensià ³n de alimentos  es causa para que se deniegue la renovacià ³n del pasaporte. Otro punto de interà ©s es que si se viaja mucho es  posible pedir un libro de pasaporte con  ms pginas  que el regular. Ahora ya no es posible pedir que se aà ±adan ms hojas pero sà ­ que se entregue un pasaporte con ms pginas que el ordinario. Simplemente, marcar esa opcià ³n al rellenar el formulario de solicitud. Verificar avance de la gestià ³n Puede verificar el estado de la tramitacià ³n en la pgina oficial del Departamento de Estado para estos fines. Documentos para acelerar el paso de control migratorio Ingresar a Estados Unidos puede ser una labor que se demora mucho tiempo. Para acelerar los pases por la frontera se han creado diferentes programas para los que se puede aplicar. Por ejemplo, si se viaja por avià ³n y se llega a un aeropuerto  Global Entry y APC  pueden resolver. Por el contrario, si el cruce es terrestre entre  Canad y USA: Nexus  es el programa al que se puede aplicar. Y, finalmente, si se trata de un cruce terrestre o marà ­timo entre Estados Unidos y Mà ©xico  SENTRI  es el programa que puede ayudar a evitar las demoras que se producen en los puentes internacionales, particularmente en los dà ­as feriados. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal para ningà ºn caso concreto.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Journal format Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Journal format - Essay Example I found it difficult to work with the child in that situation because I have an inborn knack for empathizing with people, most specially my young patients. I began to work with the patient by starting the child on 10 lbs. weights and then slowly increasing the weights until we reached the goal of 45 lbs. The child was obviously uncomfortable and in pain but I needed to continue with the task, offering the child words of encouragement and appeasement along the way in order to prod the child not to give up on the task. I also had an opportunity at this point to observe the nurses who were assigned to group and bedside reports. The nurse on duty for the night was quite helpful and did not mind having to teach me how to perform a head assessment on a patient. We spent the night with her teaching and me learning about how to calculate pediatric medication dosages, how to check the link for formularly medication, and other related tasks. I made sure to questions her about the diagnosis of patients but every time I asked about a patient, she would simply tell me to run a Google search. One of the patients was admitted with Jarcho-Levin syndrome, Vacterl syndrome, severe congenital scoliosis with history fa history of fused ribs, spinal bifida, and club feet. His VEPTR (Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib) was removed that day. I found his case quite interesting so I ran a Google inquiry on his illness and then asked my preceptor to clarify certain points pertaining to his case for me. What I did find out on my own however was quite interesting. I learned that the illness also went by other names such as costovertebral segmentation anomalies, spondylocostal dysostosis, spondylocostal dysplasia, spondylothoracic dysostosis, spondylothoracic dysplasia, were all very rare genetic disorders that are characterized by malformation of bones in the